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Optometric Terms:

Accommodative Dysfunction:
Eye focusing problem not related to changes in the lens of   the eye due to aging.

Also called “lazy eye”. Refers to the loss or lack of development of clear vision in just one eye not due to health issues. This is not fully correctable with glasses or contact lenses.

Age Related Macular Degeneration:
Age-related macular degeneration or ARMD is a progressive breakdown of the macular region of the retina and surrounding areas in the eye that are responsible for clear, straight-ahead vision. Degradation can result in loss of this central vision and the ability to see color.

An inflammation of the eyelids and lashes causing red, itchy and irritated eyelids with dandruff-like scales on the eyelashes.

A cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye located behind the iris.

 A slowly developing lump that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland in the eyelid.

Color Vision Deficiency:
A group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer use.

Computer Vision Syndrome:
A group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer use.

A swelling or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and convers the white part of the eye. Cause may or may not be infectious.

Convergence Insufficiency:
An eye coordination problem in which the eyes drift outward when reading or doing close work.

Corneal Abrasion:
A cut or scratch on the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.

Crossed Eyes:
 See strabismus.

Diabetic Retinopathy:
A condition occurring in people with diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.

Dry Eye:
A condition in which there are insufficient tears to lubricate and nourish the eye.

A vision condition in which distant objects seen clearly, but close objects are blurred. AKA hyperopia.

Floaters & Spots:
The shadowy images that appear in the field of vision caused by particles floating in the fluid that fills the inside of the eye.

 A group of disorders leading to progressive damage to the optic nerve. It is characterized by loss of nerve tissue that results in vision loss.

An infection of an oil gland in the eyelid. AKA sty

A vision condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects are blurred.

An inflammation or swelling or the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.

An eye disorder causing progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.

Lazy Eye:
See amblyopia

Learning-related Vision Problems:
Vision disorders that interfere with reading and learning.

Macular Degeneration:
An eye disease affecting the macula (the center of the light-sensitive retina at the back of the eye), causing loss of central vision.

Migraine with Aura:
A type of severe headache accompanied by various visual symptoms.

A vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but objects father away are blurred. AKA nearsightedness.

A vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but objects father away are blurred.

A vision condition in which the eye make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, often resulting in reduced vision.

Ocular Allergies:
The abnormal response of sensitive eyes to contact with allergens and other irritating substances.

Ocular Hypertension:
An increase in the pressure inside he eye above he range considered normal without any detectable changes in vision or damage to the structures of the eye.

Ocular Migraine:
Visual disturbance to what can occur with a migraine but without the headache. This visual disturbance can be alarming.

An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye.

An age-related vision condition in which the eye gradually loses the ability to focus on near objects.

An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva (the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye) and adjacent cornea (the clear front surface of the eye).

A drooping of the upper eyelid.

Retinal Detachment:
A tearing or separation of the retina (the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye) from the underlying tissue.

Retinitis Pigmentosa:
A group or separation of retina (the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye), which cause poor night vision and a progressive loss of side vision.

A rare type of eye cancer occurring in young children that develop in the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.

A condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time.

An infection of an oil gland in the eyelid. AKA hordeolum.

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage:
An accumulation of blood underneath the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the white part of the eye.

An inflammation of one or more of the structures that make up the uvea, the middle layer of the eye.

A binocular vision problem. This is a tendency for one eye to move horizontally or vertically away from the point focus. Phoria can cause discomfort and headaches with the use of the eyes at distances, close up, or both. Some patients with phorias will see double when they get tired. Phoria can be detected with a cover test.
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Chiropractic Terms:

Of short duration and relatively severe.

A form of manipulation, where the application of force is a high velocity – low amplitude thrust. A specific directional thrust maneuver or application of forces applied to a subluxated vertedra that sets the vertebra into motion with the intent to reduce and/or correct the subluxation complex along with vivification of the affected tissues and body functions.

A marked deviation from the normal standard, especially as a result of congenital or hereditary defect (s).

The tough outer ring of a spinal disc.

A general term referring to a condition of the joints. Literally it refers to an inflammation of the joints. There are many types of arthritides. This form which will inflict many people as they age is known as osteoarthritis. Other types include rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

Bell's Palsy:
An affliction of the nerves of the face that can cause excruciating, piercing pain with accompanying muscles spasms and facial contortions.

Pop that occurs in a spinal joint when vertebral surfaces (facets) are separated to create a vacuum that puts out carbon dioxide gas.

The part of your brain that controls balance, posture and coordinates of muscular movements.
Cerebral cortex: The part of your brain that coordinates all sensory and motor activities different areas of t are specifically associated with memory, learning and behavior.

Cervical Spine:
The upper spinal area, consisting of seven vertebrae, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7.

The science, art and philosophy of treating the articulation of the human frame to affect a response in the nervous system, without drugs or surgery.

Chiropractic Adjustment:
This term refers to a wild variety of specific manual interventions that may be high or low; short or long lever; high or low amplitude; with or without.

Persisting for a long period of time.

A wear and tear phenomena. When the joints of the body wear out, it is referred to as osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease.

A cartilage (cushion/pad) that spinal vertebrae, absorbs shock to the spine, and helps protect the nervous system.

Disc Degeneration:
Drying thinning or the disc as a result of accelerated wear and tear.
(Chiropractic Definition) the absence health, condition where the body has lost its ability to heal itself and is thereby susceptible to growth of organisms that are present in the body even in healthy situations.

Electrical Muscle Stimulation:
Physiological therapeutic introduction of electrical stimulation at a predetermined frequency, intensity and rate for the purpose of achieving a physiological response.

The surface of the weight bearing portion of the vertebrae, part of the posterior joints of the vertebrae.

Health care professional designated to exercise responsibly for, and control of, the utilized of health care services, e.g., D.C., M.D., D.O., D.P.M., D.D.S., D.D.M.,

The state of optimal physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.

Condition of the intervertebral disc, whereby some of the material which makes up the disc shifts to a position which irritates the nearby nerve for that spinal area. 

Home Therapy:
Activities that patient can do, under the instructions of the chiropractic physician, to assist in their recovery; includes ice/heat, exercises, diet and moderation of activities of daily living.

This is the tendency to maintain, or the maintenance of, normal, internal stability in an organism by coordinated responses of the organ systems that automatically compensate for changes in the organism.

An increased sensitivity to nerve stimulation. 

Immune System:
The System of glands and physiological responses to invasion of foreign organisms.

The status of resistance to invasion of foreign bodies to the host.

Intervertebral disk:
The tough cartilage that serves as a cushion between two vertebrae. Each disk has a gelatinous-like center (nucleus pulposus) that may protrude to form a disk.

The area between two bones where movements occurs. If movement is abnormal, pain and degeneration may occur. 

Joint fixation: 
 Diminished movement within a joint space.

Joint Dysfunction:
A condition, whereby the joints of a particular area are not moving properly. Any sort of physical trauma may bring this about, along with proposed chemical or mental cause.
A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages, serving to support and strengthen joints.
Lumbar: When discussing the spinal column, this refers to the region of the lower back.

A non-specific manual procedure that involves a general thrust to move a joint.

A specialized nerve ending that has been found to influence the neurological response of the brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves.

Method of manipulation, movement, or stretching to increase range of motion in muscles and joints that does not involve a high-velocity thrust.

Motion palpation:
Method of locating fixations and loss of mobility in the spin by feeling the motion of specific spinal segments as the patient moves.

Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic tool that subjects the patient’s body to massive doses of magnetism to induce an energy reading that the MRI computer interprets as images 

Muscles spasm:
(Fibrositis) Each of us have over 600 voluntary muscles in our bodies that work together to control even the simplest of movements. Muscles work in conjunction with joints, such as cartilage, and bones to provide motion. When the spinal vertebra becomes misaligned and irritated, it disrupts the nerve muscle relationship and causes a muscle spasm. These symptoms can be treated by a Doctor of Chiropractic through spinal adjustments. Left alone they can become permanent causing chronic pain. Muscle pain can also be a symptom of a more serious problem and should be addressed immediately.

Referring to structures involving tendons, muscles, ligaments, and joints.

Nerve Root:
One of the two nerve bundles emerging from the spinal cord that join to form a segmental spinal nerve.

Nervous System: 
The system of nerves including the brain, the cranial nerves, the spinal cord, the spinal nerves, and the peripheral nerves; including the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nerves.
Neurocalometer: The heat-detecting instrument originally developed in 1924 for locating subluxated vertebrae.

Specialized nerve receptor (neuron) thatis stimulated by injury; a receptor for pain.
Nucleus, Disc: Spongy gel-like center of a spine disc.

A slow degeneration of the joints that connect your bones and allow you to move. Aging, injury, poor posture and excess weight can cause joints to wear down and become stiff and painful.

Examining the spine with your fingers, the art of feeling with the hand.

Literally means around (para) the sympathetic; refers to the parasympathetic nervous system, a division of the autonomic nervous system; responsible for the regulation of body systems.

Physical Therapy:
Form of treatment using physical modalities (equipment) to alleviate pain and suffering.

Pinched Nerves:
Laymen’s term for pain perceived to be coming from the back or spine; physically difficult to “pinch” the nerve.

Preventative Care:
Care rendered existing patient; designed to prevent a condition from worsening and/or returning; necessary care usually due to persistent weakness or permanent impairment. 

Sensory nerve terminals which give information concerning movements and positions of the body; they occur chiefly in the muscles, tendons, and the labyrinth.

Proper term for an x-ray film after it has been exposed to radiation (x-ray)

Range of Motion:
The Range, measured in degrees of circle, through which a joint may be moved 

(Chiropractic Definition) to return subluxated vertebrae to a more near normal position.

A nerve cell that receives specific sensory information in the nervous system.

An inflammation of the sciatic nerve, the longest nerve in your body. It runs from your lower spine, through your buttocks, then into your leg and foot. There are actually two (2) sciatic nerve, one in each leg. When the sciatic nerve is inflamed, it can cause numbness, tingling, pain or weakness in your lower back and leg.

Scoliosis is an abnormal, curvature of the spine. Scoliosis has many causes; some due to injury while other are inherited. One common reason for scoliosis is abnormal pattern of muscle and ligament growth as a teenager in height. Doctors of Chiropractic are trained to recognize scoliosis or the potential for developing scoliosis. With early detection, chiropractic treatment can correct many cases of scoliosis. It you or your child have been diagnosed or think you may have scoliosis, consult a Doctor of Chiropractic for evaluation.

 The “feeling” portion of a nerve; as opposed to motor.

Nerve pathway originating in the spinal cord and communicating with the internal organs.

Spinal “Adjustment”:
A chiropractic term that most chiropractors use to describe whatever method(s) they use to correct spinal problems, whether by hand or with an instrument

Spinal Nerves:
24 pairs of nerves exiting from the spinal cord at the spinal cord at segmental level of the spinal column.

Spinous Prosses:
A posterior protruding part of the spinal bone that can be seen or felt when examining the spine.

Sports Injury:
Some sports injuries are due to improper stretching while others are accidental injuries during the activity. In either case it is important to diagnose and treat such injuries quickly to prevent further aggravation or damage to the specific area. Doctors of Chiropractic have extensive training in the area of sports medicine and can diagnose and effectively treat sports related injuries. Spinal adjustments and physical therapy/rehab have proven to be very successful in correcting the injury and getting you back to normal activity faster. No matter what your recreational activity may be, don't let sports related injury or pains go unattended, consult a Doctor of Chiropractic for evaluation.

A projecting body, as from a bone.

When a vertebra of the spine loses its proper position and becomes misaligned with the vertebrae above and below it, thus compromising the nerve, which result in interference of nerve transmission from the brain to tissues, organs, and muscles. Unfortunately, most subluxation have no pain, so generally many people are not aware of them. Subluxation physically physically cause your spine to wear unevenly, which leads to early degeneration and break down of the spine.

A division of the central nervous system responsible for regulating the various activities of the human body.

A warning signal sent from tissue, organs and muscles to the brain that damage has occurred, and still may be occurring. Common symptoms are pain, tingling, and numbness, although, many subluxations occur without any noticeable symptoms.

A fibrous cord by which a muscles is attached.

The use of modalities, or machines, to augment the adjustment. May include ultrasound, electrical muscles stimulation, traction, massage, heat/cold, infrared, laser, and others.
A diagnostic procedure in the image heat from body surface.

Thoracic Vertebrae:
There are twelve vertebrae in the thoracic or upper-back portion of the spine.

TMJ Dysfunction:
TMJ Dysfunction is a problem with the alignment of the jaw. When the junction of the jaw is out of alignment it can create several problems such as headaches, jaw pain sinus problems, stiffness in the jaw and muscle tension in the face, head, neck and shoulder. If you suffer from these symptoms it may be an indication of TMJ Dysfunction/ spinal subluxation syndrome. Through spinal adjustment a Doctor of Chiropractic can treat these symptoms and correct the problem. If you think you have TMJ Dysfunction, consult a Doctor of Chiropractic for evaluation.

Involuntary spasm of the musculature of the spine, in the neck or low back.

Either intersegmental or elongation, used to reduce swelling, ease spasms, or assist in the realignment of vertebral segments.

The goal of chiropractic and chiropractic doctors is to first locate the points of interference, and then remove them. The body will then be able to rebalance and heal itself, which it has the natural ability to do anyway…once the interference has been removed.

High frequency sound waves, sometimes accompanied with a form of electrical muscle stimulation, administered to areas of pain, spasm or other injury.

A bone of the spine. There are seven (7) cervical vertebrae, twelve (12) thoracic vertebrae and five (5) lumbar vertebrae, as well as those that make up the sacrum and the coccyx.

Vertebral Artery:
Arteries, one on each side, that thread through holes in six upper cervical vertebrae.

Sensation of dizziness and the feeling that oneself or one’s surrounding are whirling around.

Nerve pathways originating in the organs of the body and communicating with the spinal cord.

Whiplash of the neck is caused by any sudden involuntary forced movement of the head in any direction, and the resultant rebound of the head or neck in the opposite direction. Consequently there are injuries to the surrounding and supporting tissues of the neck and head.

Ionizing radiation, used by chiropractors to view primarily the spine column in an effort to assist in the location and identification of subluxations.     

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